From the traditional marimba to the more modern vibraphone, xylophones are a standout musical instrument among percussionists.
It’s unique sound makes it an invaluable addition to any band or orchestra. Xylophones have been around for centuries and have appeared in countless forms throughout history.
In this article, we will explore the many different types of xylophones available today, as well as their uses and benefits.
What is a xylophone?
A xylophone is a percussion instrument made up of wooden bars of varied lengths and thicknesses that are suspended over resonators. When struck with mallets, the bars produce a unique sound.
Xylophones usually have two rows of keys or bars arranged in a chromatic scale and can range in size from small hand-held models to large floor-standing instruments.
The most common type of xylophone is the marimba, but there are many others, such as the vibraphone and glockenspiel.
Brief history of the xylophone
The xylophone has a long and varied history that dates back to ancient times. It is believed to have originated in Southeast Asia, where it was used for ceremonial music as well as entertainment.
By the 17th century, xylophones had spread to Europe and were being used for military drills.
In the 19th century, xylophones began to appear in orchestras and concert bands. Even today, they are often used as part of a larger percussion section in orchestras and jazz ensembles.
Mallets are the most important tool for playing a xylophone. Different mallets can produce different sounds depending on the size and hardness of their head, as well as the type of material used to make them.
The three main types of mallets used for xylophones are yarn, rubber, and plastic. Yarn mallets are soft and produce a warm tone, while rubber mallets produce a sharper sound. Plastic mallets produce a bright and vibrant tone.
Grip is an important technique to master when playing the xylophone. The grip should be firm but relaxed, with the mallet held between your thumb and index finger.
The mallet should not be too close to the handle as this can cause it to move uncontrollably. It is important to keep a consistent grip throughout playing in order to maintain control of the instrument and produce desired sounds.
Striking methods are an important technique to master when playing the xylophone. Different striking methods can be used in order to create different sounds and dynamics.
The most common methods of striking a xylophone are single-note strokes, double-stroke rolls, buzz rolls, and glissandos. Single-note strokes are used to play each note individually while double-stroke rolls involve playing two adjacent notes in quick succession.
Buzz rolls are used to create a sustained sound and glissandos involve quickly playing a series of notes in an ascending or descending fashion.
Weight distribution is an important factor when playing the xylophone. The weight of the mallet should be balanced between your thumb and index finger in order to maintain control over the instrument.
If the mallet is too heavy, it can cause your grip to become too tight which can lead to fatigue and loss of accuracy. On the other hand, if the mallet is too light, it can make it difficult to control the instrument.
Classical music has long been an integral part of the xylophone repertoire. Due to its bright and resonant sound, the xylophone is often used in classical compositions ranging from baroque to contemporary works.
One example of a classic piece featuring the xylophone is Sergei Prokofiev’s “Peter and the Wolf,” which features a prominent solo for the instrument.
Folk music is an important genre for the xylophone. This style of music often features a variety of different percussion instruments, including the xylophone.
The bright and vibrant sound of the instrument makes it an excellent choice for traditional folk songs and dances. In many countries, such as Ireland and Scotland, the xylophone has become a staple instrument in folk bands and ensembles.
Jazz is another genre where the xylophone is a popular instrument. The bright and vibrant sound of the xylophone blends perfectly with the unique melodic and harmonic elements of jazz music.
Jazz musicians often use the xylophone to create intricate solos that highlight their improvisational skills. Xylophones can also be used to add texture and stimulate interaction between band members in jazz ensembles.
Pop music is a genre that often features the xylophone. The bright and vibrant sound of the instrument makes it well-suited to upbeat and catchy pop tunes.
Many pop songs feature intricate solos for the xylophone which add texture and contrast to the track. The instrument can also be used to create unique percussive lines that give a song an extra layer of energy.
George Hamilton Green
George Hamilton Green was one of the most influential xylophone players in history. He helped popularize the instrument and is credited with popularizing several new techniques for playing it, including six-finger rolls and special effects such as tremolo.
He also developed a two-mallet grip which allowed him to play more complex passages on the instrument. Green was a renowned performer and composer of xylophone music and his compositions remain popular in the present day.
Evelyn Glennie is an acclaimed percussionist, composer, and educator who has become one of the most influential xylophone players of all time.
She developed a unique approach to playing the instrument which involves using both hands and feet in order to create intricate rhythms and melodies. She has collaborated with a variety of artists from the classical music world as well as other genres including jazz, pop, and folk.
Bob Becker is a renowned American xylophonist and composer who has been at the forefront of modern mallet percussion for over four decades.
He has collaborated with numerous leading composers to create groundbreaking works for the instrument. His innovative approach combines traditional techniques with advanced musical concepts, resulting in intricate and expressive music.
Becker is also an experienced teacher, having taught at various universities such as the Eastman School of Music.
Keiko Abe is a renowned Japanese composer and xylophonist who has made an immense contribution to the world of modern mallet percussion.
She developed a unique approach to playing the instrument focusing on creating intricate rhythms and melodies with both hands and feet.
Her compositions are considered groundbreaking works for the instrument, combining traditional techniques with advanced musical concepts. In addition to her impressive musical output, Keiko Abe is also a passionate educator and has taught at various universities around the world.
Where to learn more about playing the xylophone
For those looking to learn more about playing the xylophone, there are a variety of resources available. Online tutorials and video lessons are an excellent way to get started with the basics.
Classical music programs at universities and conservatories often offer classes and workshops on xylophone techniques as well. Additionally, experienced teachers can provide valuable insight into proper technique and performance practice.
Finally, books such as The Xylophone in Music by Sylvia Smith and The Art of the Xylophone by David Friedman offer detailed information on the history, technique, and performance of the xylophone.
The xylophone is an instrument with a long and significant history in the world of music. It has been used for centuries by folk musicians around the world, but it was in the early twentieth century that it began to gain wider attention as a solo instrument.
Throughout the 20th century, xylophone players such as George Hamilton Green, Evelyn Glennie, Bob Becker, and Keiko Abe have pushed the boundaries of what is possible with this instrument. Their groundbreaking work has helped to popularize the xylophone and ensure that it remains an important part of music culture for generations to come.