Why Do My Balls Hurt? Understanding the Causes, Symptoms, and Treatment Options

Having pain in the testicles can be a worrying experience for many men. It is important to understand possible causes of this kind of pain and when to seek medical attention. In this article, we will discuss the potential causes of testicle pain and provide advice on when it is necessary to see a doctor.

Why Do My Balls Hurt?

There are many potential causes of testicle pain, ranging from minor injuries to more serious medical conditions. Injury is the most common cause of testicular pain, and can occur due to direct trauma such as a kick or fall. Minor muscle strains, bumps, or infection can also cause pain in the testicles.

Importance of addressing testicular pain

Testicular pain is a very serious issue that needs to be addressed promptly. Untreated testicular pain can lead to further complications such as infection, infertility, and even cancer in some cases.

Causes of Testicular Pain

Injury or trauma

1. Sports-related injuries

Sports-related injuries are one of the most common causes of testicular pain. The testicles can be injured during physical activities, such as running, jumping, or contact sports. Injuries can range from a mild strain or pull to a more serious trauma that requires medical attention.

2. Accidents or falls

Accidents or falls are another common cause of testicular pain. The force of a fall or direct blow to the scrotum can cause trauma and damage to the testicles, leading to pain and swelling. Other signs of an accident-related injury include bruising, difficulty urinating, and blood in the urine.

Infection or inflammation

1. Epididymitis

Epididymitis is an inflammation of the epididymis, which is a coiled tube on the back side of each testicle that stores sperm. It is usually caused by bacteria or a virus that has spread from elsewhere in the body.

2. Orchitis

Orchitis is an inflammation of one or both testicles that can be caused by infection, injury, or trauma. Symptoms include pain in the testicles that may become worse with movement, swelling, tenderness and redness in the scrotum area, as well as fever and chills.

3. Sexually transmitted infections

STIs can cause testicular pain and swelling in men. Chlamydia, gonorrhea, and herpes are common STIs that may lead to testicular pain or inflammation if left untreated.

Testicular torsion

Testicular torsion is a medical emergency in which the testicles twist or rotate, cutting off blood flow to the affected area. It is most common in boys aged 12-18 and can be caused by strenuous activity or physical trauma.


Varicocele is an enlargement of the veins in the scrotum that can cause testicular pain. It is more common in men ages 15-25 and can be caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors.


Hydrocele is a condition in which fluid accumulates in the scrotum, causing swelling and discomfort. It can be caused by trauma, infection, or congenital defects that lead to an accumulation of fluid around the testicles.

Inguinal hernia

An inguinal hernia is a protrusion of abdominal tissue through the inguinal canal, which is found in the groin area. It is more common in men than women and can cause testicular pain due to pressure on the testicles or other organs in the area.

Kidney stones

Kidney stones are hard deposits of minerals and salts that form in the kidneys or ureters, which can cause severe testicular pain. They are more common in men than women and can be caused by dehydration, dietary factors, or certain medications.

Symptoms of Testicular Pain

Sharp or dull pain

Testicular pain can vary in intensity, from a dull ache to a sharp, stabbing sensation. It may be localized to the testicles or it may radiate into other areas of the body like the lower abdomen and groin. Other associated symptoms may include nausea, fever, chills, vomiting, and difficulty urinating.

Swelling or redness

Swelling or redness of the testicles can be a symptom of testicular pain. The swelling may be localized to the testicles or it may spread to other areas of the body like the groin, lower abdomen, and scrotum. The area may also feel warm to the touch and look red or inflamed.

Sensitivity or tenderness

Sensitivity or tenderness in the testicles is a common symptom of testicular pain. The area may feel sore to the touch and be more sensitive than usual. Pain can vary from mild to severe, depending on the underlying cause.

Lump or mass

A lump or mass in the testicles may be a symptom of testicular pain. The lump may be small and not noticeable, or it may be large and easily visible. It can cause varying levels of discomfort, from mild to severe. Other associated symptoms may include nausea, fever, chills, vomiting, and difficulty urinating. A lump or mass should always be evaluated by a healthcare provider to determine the underlying cause and ensure proper treatment.

Painful urination or ejaculation

Painful urination or ejaculation can be a symptom of testicular pain. The pain is usually localized to the lower abdomen, groin, and/or testicles and may be accompanied by other symptoms such as nausea, fever, chills, vomiting, and difficulty urinating.

When to Seek Medical Attention

Acute and severe pain

Acute and severe testicular pain should always be evaluated by a healthcare provider. This type of pain can be caused by serious conditions such as testicular torsion, kidney stones, and inguinal hernia, which require prompt medical attention. If you are experiencing acute and severe testicular pain or any other associated symptoms like nausea, fever, chills, vomiting, or difficulty ur inating, contact your healthcare provider right away.

Persistent Pain

Persistent testicular pain can be a symptom of an underlying condition that may require medical attention. This type of pain is typically characterized as being localized to the testicles and lasting for several weeks or months. It can be accompanied by other symptoms such as tenderness, swelling, redness, painful urination or ejaculation, and/or a lump or mass in the testicles. If you are experiencing persistent testicular pain, contact your healthcare provider to determine the underlying cause and seek treatment.

Recurrent Pain Episodes

Recurrent pain episodes are characterized by testicular pain that comes and goes over time. The pain may be mild to moderate in intensity and can be localized to the testicles or may radiate into other areas of the body like the lower abdomen and groin. Other associated symptoms may include nausea, fever, chills, vomiting, and difficulty urinating.

Associated symptoms such as fever or vomiting

Fever and vomiting are common associated symptoms of testicular pain. A fever may accompany the pain and can range from mild to severe depending on the underlying cause. Vomiting may also occur, which can be accompanied by nausea, dizziness, and abdominal discomfort. If you experience any of these symptoms along with testicular pain, contact your healthcare provider right away for evaluation and treatment.

Diagnosis and Treatment

Physical examination

A physical examination is the first step in diagnosing and treating testicular pain. During the physical exam, a healthcare provider will look for signs of swelling, redness, tenderness and any lumps or masses in the area. They may also press on parts of the scrotum to assess for sensitivity and to check for any areas that are especially painful. The doctor may order additional testing such as ultrasound imaging or blood tests depending on what they find during the exam.

Ultrasound Imaging

Ultrasound imaging is commonly used to diagnose testicular pain as it allows doctors to see inside the scrotum and observe any abnormalities. This type of imaging can detect cysts, tumors or other irregularities that could be causing pain in the testes. Ultrasound scans are non-invasive and do not require any radiation so they are safe for both men and women.

Blood Tests

Blood tests may also be ordered if a doctor suspects an infection or other medical condition is causing testicular pain. These tests measure levels of hormones, enzymes, proteins and other substances in the bloodstream that can indicate an infection or other underlying issue such as inflammation or cancer. Doctors may also look at white blood cell counts which can be elevated when there is an infection present.

Treatment options for specific causes

1. Medications

Once the underlying cause of testicular pain is determined, treatment can be started. Medications are often prescribed for treating testicular pain depending on the specific cause. For instance, antibiotics are typically prescribed for infections such as epididymitis or orchitis. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may also be used to reduce inflammation and relieve symptoms.

2. Surgical interventions

In some cases, surgery may be necessary to treat testicular pain. Surgery may be recommended if the cause of the pain is due to a hernia, hydrocele, or testicular torsion. Hernias can be repaired with a minimally invasive procedure and hydroceles can be treated by draining and removing fluid from the affected area.

3. Lifestyle changes

In addition to medical treatments, making lifestyle changes can help reduce symptoms of testicular pain and promote overall health. Incorporating regular exercise into the daily routine, eating a healthy diet, and getting enough rest can help support the body’s natural healing processes. Avoiding smoking and drinking alcohol can also help reduce inflammation and improve overall health.

Preventive Measures

Protective gear and safety precautions in sports

Protective gear and safety precautions are important for preventing testicular pain and other injuries in sports. Wearing a jockstrap or cup provides support to the testicles and can reduce the risk of injury from direct contact with another player or object.

Safe sex practices and regular STI screenings

Safe sex practices are an important part of protecting your sexual health and can help reduce the risk of testicular pain. Using a barrier method such as condoms or dental dams during intercourse can protect you from contracting sexually transmitted infections (STIs) which can cause irritation and inflammation in the scrotum.

Regular self-examinations

Regular self-examinations of the testicles are an important part of maintaining overall health and should be done routinely. The monthly exam should involve feeling each testicle to identify any lumps or other abnormalities.

Maintaining a healthy lifestyle

Maintaining a healthy lifestyle is an important part of preventing testicular pain and other medical issues. It is recommended to get regular physical activity, practice safe sex, and follow a balanced diet. Regular exercise strengthens the muscles in the body and can help reduce pressure on the testicles.


Testicular pain can be a symptom of a variety of conditions and requires proper diagnosis and treatment to ensure long-term health. Treatment for testicular pain is based on the cause and can include medications, surgical interventions, lifestyle changes, or preventive measures such as protective gear in sports.


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